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Examples and Issues

The conservation practices of indigenous peoples and local communities depend on an astonishing variety of meanings and values related to concepts such as ‚Äúnature‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúenvironment‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúconservation‚ÄĚ, a variety that underpins the relations between humans and nature that find expression in diverse ICCAs all over the world.¬† While¬†all ICCAs include precious bio-cultural diversity conserved in a voluntary and self-organised way,¬†the related beliefs, practices, and institutions are context-specific.¬† Moreover, as socio-cultural phenomena,¬†ICCAs¬†change in tune with history and society.¬† Through time, some disappear, others survive in old or new forms, and some emerge anew.

Throughout the world, the systems by which contemporary indigenous peoples and local communities govern and manage their natural resources are a blending of old and new knowledge, practices, tools and values of different origin.¬† In the struggle to cope with the scale and pace of socio-cultural change ‚Äď from monetarization and globalisation of the economy to the expansion of government control to remote areas ‚Äď some ICCA institutions have been¬†de jure¬†replaced by state governance ‚Ķ but remain¬†de facto¬†alive and effective.¬† This is the case of communities that live in state forests, for instance, but have¬†de facto¬†maintained their customary governance systems. In other cases, change has been powerful enough to affect the community‚Äôs capacity to manage the local resources in a sustainable way: customary institutions have broken down or have been replaced by state or private institutions, and genuine local ICCAs are just a memory.¬† Yet in others, even overpowering change has been unable to destroy them: innovative, more complex ICCAs have emerged from the pre-existing ones.

ICCAs span a wide range of natural ecosystems and species, including agricultural, pastoral and hunting and gathering landscapes, forests, wetlands and coastal and mountain areas, many of which are Sacred Natural Sites.  In parallel with the variety of their ecological characteristics, ICCAs are managed across a large diversity of traditional and modern institutions and rules, and encompass an equally impressive variety of motivations and objectives. Some examples are illustrated in the papers that can be downloaded from this page.  Besides specific examples, some of the papers deal with issues generally important for ICCAs.

DOWNLOAD THE ARTICLES HERE (Please click on the images or titles below) 



The role of Sherpa culture in nature conservation   Communities and the State РRethinking the relationship for a more progressive agrarian century


Dulong dance
 Co РManejo a la Gobernanza en el Parque Nahuel Huapi : El caso del Lof Kinxiew РPaso Coihue  En gouvernance partagée!
un guide pratique pour les aires marines prot√©g√©es d’Afrique de l’Ouest
Can a well meaning conservation policy destroy an ICCA? An example from China

batak children with rice

2016-03-18 18_22_55-Traditional & Modern Institutions of governance of CBNRM in Southern Afr....pdf

 Field to a forest: Patterns of forest recovery following shifting cultivation
in the Eastern Himalaya

Rice-related knowledge, farming strategies and the transformation of swiddens
Amongst the Batak of Palawan Island, the Philippines

Traditional and modern institutions of governance of natural resources in Southern Africa



2016-03-18 18_27_19-Folleto Chimalapas digital.pdf - Adobe Acrobat Reader DC
Evolving hunting practices in Gabon: lessons for community-based
conservation interventions

Governance issues, potentials and failures of participatory
collective action in the Kafue Flats, Zambia

Chimalapas: La defensa del territorio y de los bienes naturales
como un factor de identidad indígena

Khonoma law res



Who Owns the World’s Land?
A global baseline of formally recognized indigenous and community land rights.
Safeguarding Commons for Next Generation РA study of Common property Resources in District Alwar Foro de Pueblos Indígenas, Comunidades Campesinas y Afrodesciendientes




Synthesis of the project:
Recognition and support to Indigenous and Community Conserved Areas (ICCAs) in northern Mesoamerica

Unseen sentinels: local monitoring and control in conservation’s blind spots  Legal Options to Secure Community РBased Property Rights
phil1exis phil2exismama phil2exismenuvu

The Maalagay Dogal/Matilo of the Abellen Community in Maporac, New San Juan, Cabangan, Zambales, in the Philippines


Against all Odds
The Case of the Binantazan nga Banwa / Binantajan nu Bubungan. ICCA of the Mamanwa-Manobo, in the Philippines
Idsesenggilaha of the Menuv√Ļ¬† Tribe in the Mt. Kalatungan, Bukidnon, in the Philippines
book conafor

Transparent Chennai and Siddharth Hande

Customary territories, community traditions and nature conservation
–¬†A¬†collection of Indonesian stories and perspectives
Los servicios ambientales en México: Las reglas operativas de CONAFOR y los derechos a la autonomía y la auto-determinación de las comunidades indígenas  Mapping the Coastal Commons in Chennai, India
masai mdg europe
 ICCAs and Key Biodiversity Areas- Threats and opportunities  Land and resource rights and MDGs in Africa Caring together for nature in Europe
Picture 1 Bollier Picture 2 Kawawana Picture Tana Ulen3
The Commons as a Template for Transformation Il etait une fois KAWAWANA… une belle histoire Tana‚Äô Ulen, Customary Forest: A legacy of
Indigenous Kenyah Dayak people for forest conservation
Picture2 Picture3 DSCN1262
Kawawana en marche!¬† Les Annexes de ¬ę¬†Kawawana en marche!¬†¬Ľ Les Sites Naturels Sacr√©s de l‚Äô√©cor√©gion c√īti√®re et marine Ouest-Africaine

Ashish-Braulio-CBD exxon valdez

Regional Study on Social Dimensions of MPA Practice in Central America: Case Studies from Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica & Panama


Communities, Conservation and Development The right to know and the right to speak‚ÄĒ
Citizens’ Advisory Councils exercise oversight of
petroleum-related risks in Alaska
    bush meat sale
Indigenous People’s, local communities and national policy towards the CBD Aichi Targets in the DRCPeuples Autochtones, Communaut√©s Locales et Politique Nationale: vers les Objectifs d’AICHI de la CDB en RDC Ecological Civilization, Indigenous Culture and Rural Reconstruction in China¬† From¬†Sustainable¬†Use¬†to¬†Sustainable¬†Development¬†–
the lessons from CAMPFIRE and more


mapuche image

The Regole of the Ampezzo Valley, Italy ‚Äď fully recognized ICCA and World Heritage Site


Desde el pensamiento de los Pueblos Indígenas de Guatemala, por los derechos de la Madre Tierra 

Documento Mapuche: del Co-Manejo
a la Gobernanza en el Parque Lanín

fisherman lao

sundeep nepal 1

sudeep- nepal 2

Strength in Diversity: fish sanctuaries and deep- water pools in Laos PDR

Rediscovering ICCAs in Nepal  National Network of Indigenous and Community Conserved Areas (ICCAs) of Nepal- A summary of results of national gathering in June 2010 

kawawana image

cambodia front cover

mexico issue

Kawawana: A genuine ICCA in Senegal
Kawawana: A Vraie APAC au Senegal

Communities and bio-cultural diversity in Cambodia-options for policy and actions whose time has come!

Sacred Nature and Community Conserved Areas:
A case study of Oaxaca, Mexico

elusive meanings

Elusive meanings: decentralization, conservation and local democracy  

community conservation africa
Community Conservation research in Africa 

pbr india

People’s Biodiveristy Registers:
Lessons Learnt


Law, custom and community-based natural resource management in Kubulau District 
 maanda picture
Robust institutions and resilient ecology:
linkages in Maasailand (Kenya)

aboriginal with dudjeridoo

Towards Decolonisation of Australia’s Protected Area Management:¬†the Nantawarrina Indigenous Protected Area Experience¬†

cambodia sunset

 Controlling the margins: Nature Conservation and State Power in Northeastern Cambodi

lac en coeur

Decentralisation, Conversation and Local Democracy for the African Forests 

urok pic

The Community Marine Conserved
Area of Urok, Guinea Bissau
L’aire Marine Protégée Communautaire
de Urok, Guinée Bissau

bassis article accompanying pic

How to destroy a cultural landscape ICCA ‚Äď lessons from Ethiopia

yagi picture
Marine and coastal ICCAs (Sato-umi) in Japan

zalelem photo

A resilient ICCA in the
Central Highlands of Ethiopia 

miskito photo
Miskito common property under attack
bosque photo
Bosques comunales ‚Äď ICCAs de los Shipibo Conibo en Peru¬†

firewood collection web

The Forest Rights Act of 2006 and
its consequences for community forest conservation and governance in India

propithecus verreauxi web
Sacred forests in Madagascar: the local, customary institutions are essential to conserve them!
cover picture for municipal pas latin america
Municipal Conservation areas in Latin America and the Caribbean: Bridging biodiversity with local needs

stans article

Implementing the UN Declaration on the rights of Indigenous Peoples and International Human Rights Law through the recognition of ICCAs

amazon forest important sentence- fpic

myth of wilderness

Indigenous lands in the Brazilian Amazon prevent deforestation and destruction by fire as well as government Parks… and actually better! La Consulta Previa con Pueblos Indigenas y Comunidades Afrodecendientes en Colombia¬†Important sentence in favour of communities‚Äô FPIC¬†(available in Spanish only, en Espanol) The Myth of Wilderness
in the Brazilian Rainforest

community hist

pre-colonial south africa


Community-Based Conservation: A Reflection on History

Pre-colonial and colonial conservation practices in southern Africa and their legacy today

Natural Justice (bio-cultural lawyers):
articles 8j and 10c of CBD and ABS 

Community Forest Governance: the Jharkhand Save the Forest Movement in India 
New: recommendations from national workshop on the Forest Rights Act, March 2011
From Displacement-based Conservation to Place-based Conservation 


Indigenous Peoples and Traditional Resource Rights:
A basis for equitable relationships?

Social movements and the governance of frontier land for “another development” and conservation in Brazil¬†
Local Rulemaking, forest livelihoods, and biodiversity conservation
Experiencias Organizativas hacia la
Gobernanza Indigena de las Areas Protegidas
Les Aires Communautaires en Afrique de L’ Ouest: Papaco quelle contribution a la conservation? (Francais)
Institutional designs of customary fisheries management arrangements in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Mexico


geotagged report
The Palawan Oil Palm Geotagged Report 2013 – Part 1
The Palawan Oil Palm Geotagged Report 2013 РPart 2 

 taiwan revival of sustainability article
Seeking the Revival of Sustainability
for the Island of the Tao People
desafos conservacin territorios indgenas chile
Los desafíos de la conservación en los Territorios Indígenas En Chile
ilc securing common property regimes photo
tragedy public lands willy gfc photo
The tragedy of public lands: The fate of the commons under global commercial pressure