The most critical threat to ICCAs in the North American context remains the Western ideology of seeing the world as a collection of disconnected phenomena in which humanity is separated from nature. This worldview leads to poor economic decision-making and profound breaches of trust.  Mineral and gas extraction, for example, as dramatically seen in the clash over the Dakota Access Pipeline in North Dakota, threaten the health and beauty of communities and their territories, and large scale industrial agriculture and fisheries can degrade or destroy natural systems.  The same exploitative thinking leads to dysfunctional societal arrangements as well, including abuses suffered by indigenous people. Unfortunately we still see racism and repression– the forces that underlay the original expulsion of indigenous people from their lands, beginning with the time of contact and continuing throughout the Indian Removal (from their lands) and Tribal Termination (termination of their recognized status) eras in US history.
The issues
Strategies and responses

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